Bond Test

Determining the Bond work index is a standardized method for characterizing the comminution performance of mineral samples. CEMTEC uses this method for designing rod and ball mills. The comminution performance is, just like the desired comminution step and the production capacity, crucial for determining the required mill size.

The necessary minimum sample quantity is 15 kg. The test simulates a closed grinding circuit in a standard ball or rod mill. At CEMTEC, these tests are conducted with batch mill "ELLA". After determining the Bond work index, the specific comminution capacity is calculated using the formula listed at the bottom of the page, factoring in various correction factors obtained from experience.

As the Bond test is only defined for a certain degree of fineness, and current technological requirements call for products exceeding these limits, CEMTEC also offers the possibility to conduct specifically coordinated, modified Bond tests in order to achieve a representative measurement of the comminution resistance.

Zeisel, Hardgrove

As the comminution performance depends on the grinding load (which is different for vertical roller mills in comparison to ball mills), the sample characterization must be adapted as well. For the Zeisel and Hardgrove grindability tests, the feed sample with its precisely defined particle size is crushed by pressure and friction between a grinding bowl and grinding balls. The exerted stress corresponds to that in vertical roller mills.

Basically, the test station consists of a grinding bowl with rotary mounting, the grinding media (balls), and the motorized grinding ring.

The differences between the Hardgrove and the Zeisel method lie in their grinding chamber geometry and the dispersity skip measurement:

  • Zeisel method: Measurement of the specific surface increase
  • Hardgrove method: Measurement of the rate of passage through a 74 µm sieve

Batch Grinds

Beside the standard Bond method, it is also possible to determine grinding resistance by recording grinding curves with batch mills. This means that a product with a certain fineness is produced while measuring the energy needed. There are various options for varying this energy input:

  • Mill speed
  • Grinding media filling degree
  • Grinding media shape
  • Batching composition

These tests complement the Bond work index, so that the ideal mill can be designed.

At CEMTEC's laboratory, there are four batch mills of different sizes for these tasks. They include an iron-free drum mill with a diameter d = 0.5 m and an effective grinding length l = 0.4 m.

Formula for the required crushing power

W = Wi*(10/√P10/√F)

W ... comminution energy needed in kWh/t
Wi ... Bond Work Index
P ... 80% mass flow rate of the product in μm
F ... 80% mass flow rate of the feed material in μm